Pakistan’s climate is generally continental, but the high mountains to the north give it a special shape.
The Himalayan highlands in northern Pakistan affect Pakistan’s climate in several ways.
Probably the most striking effect of the Great Mountain Range in the north on the climate of Pakistani cities is that Pakistani cities survive the severe cold of Central Asia in winter. To give a typical example, Multan and Shanghai are almost parallel, but there is a large temperature difference between their winter temperatures. Multan records winter temperatures of 54 degrees Fahrenheit, while in Shanghai it is 38 degrees Fahrenheit. This is because the very high mountains of the north do not allow cold air to enter Pakistan. In the case of Shanghai, however, there are no mountain barriers to protect it from the cold, strong winds of northern Siberia.
Similarly, Tashkent, in Uzbekistan, on the other side of the mountains, is facing the full rage of the Central Asian wind, with temperatures dropping to 30 degrees Fahrenheit in winter, while in Islamabad the winter temperature is around 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Thanks to the Himalayan shield to the north.
Another important effect of high mountains is the guidance and control of monsoon winds. If there was no mountain in the north, there would be no monsoon winds. Monsoon rains from the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean are blocked by high mountains in the north and forced to rise, thus reaching compaction temperatures and heavy rainfall results.
Other neighboring countries, located at almost the same latitude, have no rainy season like the monsoon rains. Afghanistan and Iran are examples. In these countries, summer temperatures rise until late July and in some cases until August, and then gradually decrease in the following months. On the other hand, due to the influence of very high mountains in northern Pakistan, monsoon winds can lower the temperature significantly by the end of June, and the following months, July, August and September, are much colder than before. . It was not raining
In short, the Himalayas in northern Pakistan greatly affect and change the country’s climate significantly.